Today’s sessions were on:
- Positive Engagement and Flow
- Positive Relationships
- Positive Emotions and Gratitude
Once again, each of the sessions involved an introduction to the whole group, break-out sessions and a plenary.
The guru of flow, Mihaly Csikszentmihalli, defines flow as:
…the state of intense absorption and optimal experience that results from taking part in intrinsically motivating challenges.”
Through today’s session, I feel I have gained a much deeper understanding of flow, and more importantly, have practical tools to establish conditions in which it can occur.
Firstly, flow relies on three dimensions of engagement. These are cognitive, behavioural and emotional.Therefore, to enhance flow you must provide conditions which support these dimensions of engagement.
Secondly, flow occurs during activities in which high challenge meets high skill. Without the requisite skill, we feel anxious and frustrated by the task. Without sufficient challenge, we may become too relaxed or even bored. This is tricky in the classroom. How is it possible to supply the optimal challenge to students who are at different levels? One approach may be to use adaptive learning environment (such as Khan Academy), where the complexity of learner challenges is based on previous performance. Probably a better way is to allow students to pick appropriate levels of challenge for themselves. One of the delegates in my break-out group reported that she offered students the option of a “mild, medium or spicy” assessment tasks.
For Positive Relationships, we explored the practice of Active Constructive Responding (ACR), a technique which is well explained by Dr Martin Seligman here. Although I have done this before, it was good to have a chance to practice it again. It felt good to both give and receive ACR.
The final session focussed on Gratitude. Much of this looked at Kerry Howells’ view that gratitude actually has two stages. Firstly there is appreciation. Here is where many people stop. But she argues that to fully realise gratitude one must then act upon that feeling. We then explore numerous ways in which we can practice gratitude, some private, some shared. These included: Gratitude journals, acts of kindness, gratitude letters, gifts and so on.