The Plastic Brain


A Journey to Co-creation

How I use Technology

I have always used technology in the classroom. This is my third year teaching, after graduating straight into a school which had a 1:1 laptop program and interactive whiteboards in every classroom.

The big change for me this year has not been how much I used technology, but how I used technology.

In previous years, the technology was teacher-focussed. For example, when using interactive whiteboards I am tempted to use them for lecturing to prepared slides shows. Both the screen, and teacher’s computer are at the front, and when I rely on them I end up being tied down. I revert to acting as the  ‘sage on the stage’, with students only using their laptops for taking notes and completing assignments.

Something had to change.

Humble Beginnings

I set up a website.

Learning Space


It wasn’t much, and really, it was just there as a way to store my traditional, lecture-style slide shows. What it did allow was students to go back and check the notes after the lesson, or if they missed it. It also meant parents could have a window into the learning – though what they seem to access most is the page with due dates.

A Work in Progress

It has changed a lot since I set it up. Student feedback and my own experiences have led to both restructuring and cosmetic changes. Before long I realised I needed to give it a name: “Go to the website thingy” is not as clear an instruction as “Go to the Learning Space.” As I worked through the first semester, more and more content has been added.

The other thing that has been changing is the focus. My aim is to move along the continuum shown below. So far, progress is slow, but reassuring.

I feel that the provision of accessible, curated content has gone very well. Focus areas for the next six months are:

  • Resources used as ‘base camp’ for further learning (in progress)
  • Provision of teacher-made videos for instruction – ‘Flipped Learning’ (in progress)
  • Creation of student-made videos for instruction (planned)
  • Students using reflective blogging to record their learning (just started)
  • Students providing majority of resources and writing content for the Learning Space (planned)
  • Co-planning and creation of learning journey (Unit Plan) with students (planned)

Making Ripples

Although the focus has always been the learning of my students, there have been a couple of very positive ripple effects. Firstly, students from other classes have started accessing the content of the Learning Space as a supplementary resource. Secondly, other teachers have shared with me their interest blended learning and flipping. I have delivered a brief flipped learning session to the whole staff, visiting Indonesian teachers, and have convened a group who are sharing their sites and stories, and helping each other grow their skills in this area.

Watch this Space…


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Notes from a day with Steve Francis.

Today’s Student Free Day was led by Steve Francis, and focused on a strategic direction of the school:

Student Engagement

I took some notes which barely scratch the surface, and may only acts a prompts for people who were actually there. Where possible, I have hyperlinked to his original sources. Here they are:

A survey of Year 10 students has found that the main characteristics for good teacher are:
  • Positive relationships with students
  • Fairness and equity
  • Passionate about their subject and teaching
5 levels of engagement (Schlechty, 2002 ) See also here (pdf).

  • Authentic engagement (flow)
  • Ritual compliance
  • Passive compliance
  • Retreatism
  • Rebellion

7 Reminders for Good Teaching
  • They don’t care how much you know until they know how much you care.
  • Passion sells
  • It’s not about US. It’s about THEM
  • High expectations and the self-fulfilling property
  • Maximise time in the Learning Zone
  • Make it meaningful
  • Show students how much they need to learn
Live the reputation you want to have.
You should have been doing so already, but if not, the second best time is now.
Cores of Credibility (Covey 2008)

  • Integrity
  • Intent
  • Capability
  • Results 
Working on the Work (Schlechty)
  • Content and substance
  • Organisation of Knowledge
  • Product focus
  • Clear and compelling standards
  • Safe environment
  • Affirmation of Performance
  • Affiliation
  • Novelty and variety
  • Choice
  • Authenticity



I take away many new ideas, but mostly it was the resounding reminder that teaching is all about relationships. Engagement, trust, integrity matter. Passion matters.

At the end of the day we are teaching our students, not our subjects. The human element makes it messy, but it also makes it thrilling and rewarding. Don’t be afraid to expose your flaws and admit your mistakes. At the same time strive to improve, and demand the same from your students.

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Google Digital Technologies Curriculum Summit

I sent in an application at virtually the last minute, but it seemed like too good an offer not to throw my hat in the ring: Flown to Sydney to participate in a two-day summit discussing the implementation of the Digital Technologies strand of the Australian Curriculum, hosted by Google.
The application required the usual details, some short sections on how you use technology and, here’s the kicker, a one minute, vision-statement video.
I’ve made videos before, I know how long it can take to make even just a short one. This was a long-shot, and I didn’t want to waste much time. I threw something together, uploaded it to Youtube, and pressed submit. It’s embarrassing, but I suppose I should link to it.
Miraculously, my application was successful, and here I am, at Google HQ in Sydney, about to meet some great folks, learn a lot and hopefully pick up some great ideas.

Day 1

Keynote: Maggie Johnson
  • Computer  science is an important skill in our society
  • The demand for people with CS skills is greater than the number of graduates
  • We can address this by teaching computational thinking (see this seminal article)
  • Computational thinking is as important as literacy and numeracy
  • Google has done a lot of work defining what computational thinking is, and how we can teach it
  • The core of their definition is Abstraction: the ability to take a complex situation and reduce it to its important features
  • Pattern recognition was the other key skill she discussed
  • Combining these allows you to take a pattern-to-program approach to coding (at Google they have students code in python)
  • Interestingly, for teaching purposes they also had students work on program-to-pattern problems: run numbers through commands and investigate patterns in the output data

Digital Technologies Update: ACARA Julie King

  • Digital Technologies will form part of the Technologies stream along with Design and Technology
  • Core of subject is around: Computational Thinking, Design Thinking and Systems Thinking
  • Aim is take make students creators of technology, not just users.
  • Will be taught F-8 to all students, and as an elective subject from Year 9.
  • ACARA will be working closely with Scootle to produce resources for teachers

From e-learning to free learning: Dr Chris Tisdell
  • The future of education is: online, on-demand, mobile.
  • Youtube is a powerful tool for scaling teaching and allowing students to control their consumption of his teaching content
  • Doesn’t require a lot of know-how or equipment to get started
  • Analytics helps him to data mine student learning activities
  • However, lacks the personal touch. So Tisdell uses Google Hangouts to provide live webinars where he can respond and give feedback to students
  • He has also written a large, free text book to accompany his Youtube channel
CS Unplugged: Tim Bell
  • Computational thinking does not require computers
  • Foundational core skills (which can be very sophisticated) can be taught through simple and fun activities
  • There are some excellent teaching resources through CS Unplugged and CS Field Guide

Unconference Sessions

  • Computation thinking and digital technologies should be embedded across the curriculum
  • We can use new language and approaches (possible moving away from coding) as ways to engage with reluctant students
  • Need new models of professional learning (primarily face-to-face and buddying) to help colleagues upskill
  • Focus, as always, should be on good pedagogy
  • Student-centered learning and project-based learning are important directions
  • Transparency in syllabus design and providing student voice and choice
  • School structures (logistical, administrative and even physical) need to change to facilitate, rather than impede these changes
  • Open classrooms with observation as the norm helping teachers learn from each other
  • Need to sell the message to get parents and communities on board

Day 2

CS Unplugged 

  • Activity 1: Using “bit cards” to explore how numbers and letters are encoded in binary.


  • Activity 2: Treasure Hunt (Finite state automaton)


Can be drawn for stopwatches, microwaves, DVRs, etc, etc

  • Activity 3: Information Theory. How much information do you need to define a number?DSCN0940
For a number less than 8, it is only 3. But, in compression algorithms we can use assumptions about the data in order to narrow down the range. The assumptions are based on context – what does the data (eg colour in an image) look like around the one you are encoding.
  • Activity 4: Sorting Algorithms. Pairwise comparisons (select and sort).
Chris made a great time-lapse of the process here.
Nick Falkner

Nick is an academic at Adelaide University, doing amazing things in the School of Computer Science. He is part of a team launching a new program with Google which will “help teachers encourage the next generation of students become the creators rather than consumers of digital technology”

 He asked us to explore:
  • Ideas
  • Resources
  • Community
  • Scale of effort

Nick asked to consider where these things have come together for us. How did it work for you?

This is what our group put together:


Key take-home for me was encapsulated in the central diagram: PD should happen in classroom, to students and teachers at the same time! Great idea Phillip.

Why do computer science? Fun, change the world, be ready for the world.

FIRST Robotics

Just the setup looks exciting. Can’t wait to have at it!


Such a great session that I didn’t get a chance to take many process shots, but here are some of the robots our groups put together.
The EV3 systems (both the hardware and software) are a great incremental improvement on NXT and Mindstorms, but a still completely intuitive for people experienced on the old platform. Had a blast.
HUGE thanks to Google for an amazing Summit. It was great to meet up with so many passionate people and share ideas. Much to think about (and implement!).

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(For conference tweets, search the hashtag #googledigiteach on Twitter. Storyfied here)

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Striving for Happiness is Futile. Try Curiosity

It’s going to sound like heresy but when we make our objective of life to be happy it’s problematic… I think it’s the wrong objective in life and this is something that’s become very clear to me as someone who’s taught classes and been studying wellbeing for 15 years.

I’ve been listening to an All in the Mind podcast (MP3 and transcript), in which Lynne Malcolm interviews Todd Kashdan. He’s the Professor of Psychology at George Mason University in Virginia and author of Curious: Discover the missing ingredient to a fulfilling life. His thesis is that rather than pursuing happiness, we should embrace curiosity as a guiding principle. In the interview he discusses how being a curious explorer of the world allows you to be present in the moment, and enjoy the wonder of life. A key theme is embracing uncertainty: we cannot immerse ourselves in curiosity if we feel we cannot handle a sense of not knowing.

…we think that curiosity is all about just something new and mysterious walking into our field of vision.  But there’s another part of curiosity that people miss: it’s besides whether we think there’s something new or uncertain or mysterious. We need to believe that we can handle that novelty and that uncertainty, and if we don’t feel that we can handle it we’re not going to feel curious; we’re going to feel confused or we’re going to feel threatened.  And often the reason people don’t feel this sense of wonder is because they don’t feel like they can handle or tolerate any of the tension that comes with the unknown.not handle a sense of not knowing.

Kashdan explores the connections with positive psychology, neuroplasticity and growth mindsets. In particular, he has strong views about fostering curiosity, and how we should interact with children. He is essentially talking about our own children, but it can be easily extrapolated to our students.

…there are some studies of people in New Zealand following children at adolescence for four or five years and showing that even when you account for how intelligent children are, the more that they seek out stimulation the more that they’re curious explorers the more intelligent they become over time, the better they do at school, the more satisfied they are with school, the better relationships they have with teachers.

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Five Lessons Learned from a Week in Industry

Recently, I’ve had a lot on my mind. In the last week, I have been taken out of my usual context, and been given the opportunity to look my teaching from a new vantage point. The results have been profound.

But before I talk about this week, I’d like to look back at the last month. I’ve been reading a lot of literature, attended a conference and had discussions with colleagues on pedagogies, mindsets and positive education. It has been revolutionary, and changed the way I approach my teaching. It has coincided with a particularly busy phase in our pastoral care program: course counselling for our Year 10s as they head into their final two years of schooling (the SACE). This, in a way, sets the scene.

In separate part of my  job, I have been working in a team to develop innovating and interesting projects to increase student engagement in STEM subjects. In particular, our STEM team has just finished our second 10-week course for primary students. The STEM Initiative aims to introduce students to our high school, and provide enrichment and extension for students interested in Science, Maths and Technology. Funding to support the STEM Initiative has come through the Advanced Technology Project (sponsored by the Defence Materiel Organisation). As part of their work to link teachers with industry, they recently awarded me an Industry Placement, which brings me back to this week.

My placement is at SAGE Automation, a national company (founded in SA) which provides automation solutions for a variety of projects and industries, including the Arnotts, SA Water, Southern Expressway, Holden, Mining companies and big defence contracts like the Air Warfare Destroyer. When I started my week-long placement on Monday I expected to learn about their business, and take some ideas back to school about what industry employers are looking for and hopefully generate some authentic Maths and Science tasks. However, I had no idea how the concepts of mindsets and positive education would link to the engineering and management practices at SAGE.

Here are some of the lessons I will be taking away with me:

1. The Importance of Mindsets

One of the key goals of my placement was to find out from industry what they need in graduates, and what we can do to better prepare our students for the work force. As such, I’ve spent a lot of time this week talking to employees (“What do you think got you this job?”) and managers (“What do you look for in your employees?”). Without exception, every answer has centred on the attributes outlined by Dweck in her work on growth mindsets. The ability to grow, adapt and learn from mistakes in key.


“SAGE…only hired people who shared the passion to drive exceptional outcomes for our clients….

Loyal and diligent employees live our core values and are empowered to deliver certainty for our clients. It’s an exceptional culture and one of which we are fiercely proud.”

Founder and MD, Andrew Downs.

The other area of my reading which is implicitly practiced in the workforce is Seligman’s Signature Strengths. Every person I’ve met at SAGE seems to embody the notion of working with your Strengths to generate meaning and purpose. Each member of their teams is passionate about what they do, and is given the opportunity to work with their strengths to make their contribution to the overall project. All of this works synergistically to promote that ever elusive state: flow.

2. Attitude and Adaptability

Sounds like a great place to work, doesn’t it? So what advice do they have for students who want to land a job in such a hi-tech, innovative industry? Work on your attitude. Being persistent, but friendly, reliable and punctual are the keys to the steely gates of HR. Form emails just don’t cut it. Pick up the phone, meet and greet, put yourself out there and do whatever you can to make a good name for yourself. Also, don’t expect to always have the same job. Employees in industries like this need to be flexible. Projects can be short or long, come from a range of sectors, and require a range of skills. While the managers do an excellent job of tracking expertise and allocating human resources, every job involves a degree of learning and adaptability. What’s more, clients can be temperamental and change specifications mid-project. You need to be able to adapt and rework your solutions. In teacher-speak, they are looking for life-long learners. [As an aside, I was talking with one of the managers, only half-jokingly, about how changing the assessment criteria one week into a summative task would be a good life lesson for students.]

3. The Maths that Matters

SAGE employs a lot of software, electronics, mechatronics and robotics engineers. Engineers are heavily into the maths subjects at school and university – in fact engineering courses are the most prerequisite-heavy courses in the SATAC guide. We can’t hope to, or should even try to, teach middle school students the maths they would need in some of these high-end career paths. However, certain skills seemed to stand out as key foundational requirements:

  • Ratios, rates and conversions: this week I’ve seen a lot of this: Gearing ratios, scaling, flow rates, belt speeds, pay rates, converting Bars to kPa, microseconds to milliseconds and Euler angles to Quaternions (yeah, look it up, I had to).
  • Boolean logic: Despite its ubiquity in all computer science, which is fundamental to the way we live today, Boolean logic is virtually absent in the Australian Curriculum.
  • Schematics: The process of reducing complex visual information down to schematics, and the reverse operation of reading diagrams and applying understandings to complex systems is fundamental in engineering. Align with this are the skills of reductionism and integration.
  • Interpreting data: In the Maths classroom, numbers usually float freely, only occasionally being linked to context. In industry, numbers are data. They always have meaning and significance. They may be money, dimensions, hours worked, rates, flows or instrument readings. Knowing if the numbers are within an expected range matters and being able to identify trends and investigate patterns is paramount.

4. Project Management and PBL

One of the biggest things I’ve been learning has not been what they do at SAGE (which has been very interesting and informative) but how they do it. As you may have gathered from the above, SAGE’s business runs on the basis of Projects. Each has a unique number,  a Project Manager, a number of engineers and other staff assigned to it. In order to keep everything running smoothly and everyone on the same page, they use a defined set of procedures called the TEP (Technical Execution Practice). The TEP is based on the “V model” below.

V model

The V model starts by looking at your requirements, and designing a solution. On the downside of the V, you break that down to smaller and small tasks which you achieve. In the instance above, that relates to developing IT solutions. On the upside of the V you integrate those small pieces, constantly check back to your design and requirements to see that you are meeting those initial requirements. The final stage is the delivery of the finished product – in this case a finished IT platform.

I’ve been interested in Project-based (PBL) learning for a while, and I’ve completed a couple of units which may be considered PBL (although everyone seems to have a different definition of what qualifies as PBL). One of my key reflections has been how difficult it can be for the students to know what is required and where they are up to. This would lead to major issues in industry, so naturally they have developed structures to avoid this (hence the V model and the TEP). Inspired by the TEP, I have been working on generating supporting documentation and a new “project vocabulary” for managing PBL. It also ties in beautifully with the trend for using design-based thinking and the IB MYP Design Cycle. Not only should adopting these models improve the PBL process, but can be used to explicitly teach highly transferrable workforce skills.

5. Change management

SAGE is a business which is interested in growth and innovation. Change is an essential part of their operations. One of the most valuable sessions I had during the week was with the Engineering Operations Manager. He ran through the process of change management which he had learnt from his guru, and which he was enacting at SAGE. It seemed simple, but therein lies the genius:

  1. Set a clear and common vision for the organisation
  2. Have short-run (in this case 100-day) Strategic Projects (SPs) which take you closer to that vision
  3. Work in teams to achieve projects in a transparent way*
  4. Celebrate your successes.

* Everyone knows what the teams are, what they are doing, and why, and can see the progress they are making. This is achieved by literally printing the SPs on A3 sheets and pinning them up in a common staff area. Online seems good – but people just won’t check it.

Even if the aims of each SP are small, incremental progress is evident, morale grows and directed change is happening.

Lasting lessons

I will certainly come away with what I was hoping for. I have some great videos and resources, contact with potential guest speakers, and am writing new activities and assessments. However, I will also come away from my experience at SAGE with a new outlook on not only what can be achieved in the classroom, but what can be achieved within organisations. The company expertise is in making things work effectively and efficiently. Their practices provide a model for both students and teachers.

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Thank you to all of the staff at SAGE, who have been so welcoming, patient and generous.

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“Journeys to Flourishing” Positive Education @ Seymour College

I had one of the best and most inspirational days of professional development today, exploring the world of Positive Education with expert speakers and like-minded educators. There were so many highlights that it would be impossible to summarise them all here.

Instead, I have provided below a summary of some of the key points from the opening Keynote address by Assoc Prof Lea Waters, who looked why it is so important to understand Positive Education, and try to incorporate it into our practice.

“The Why of Positive Education”

Assoc Prof Lea Waters, University of Melbourne

Looking at why Positive Psychology matters

The key driving factor for “why?” is the statistics which show mental illness and depression in young people. The severity and youth of sufferers are also increasing. Of great concern also is the likelihood of underreporting and the number of subclinical cases.

These issues were brought into focus by a poem which Waters showed, called The Lost Generation. Watch it now.

Waters described the poem as “a lovely palindrome to reflect the field of positive psychology”. I think it is genius, and it certainly produced an emotional reaction.

Research, PP and Education

Waters presents Peterson’s (2008) of definition of PP

Positive Psychology is a relatively new branch of psychology that conducts scientific inquiry into the factors that help individuals, communities and organisations thrive by building on their strengths and virtues.

She then looked at research in the field, including her own, highlighting that schools have a unique reach to support young people.

One of the main windows into understanding PP is Professor Corey Keyes’ Two factor theory. On the left are the more traditional strategies of removing negative states – the usual focus of psychology. On the right, the more rarely used strategies for promoting positive states.

Removing negative states

Promoting positive states

Take away obstacles

Bringing in enablers

Waters’ research shows that in 1992 only 1% of articles in psychology journals focussed on promoting positive states. In 20 years that has risen to over 4%. Still, more that 95% of research published focuses on removing negative states.

PP, as a field, is interested in bringing both of the factors together. “Why do we wait until something goes wrong?” Seligman talks about PP as a psychological immunisation. The aim is to turn psychology into a profession of prevention, rather than reaction.


Promoting positive states has clear clinical benefits. It was also made clear that absence of illness is not the same as wellness. This means that it is beneficial for all students. Not just those who are ill or at risk.

Another key point is to be aware of what PP is not. Positive psychology is about resilience thinking, not positive thinking.

Literacy, numeracy and wellbeing should be our aims aim primary school. Wellbeing, like the other two, is teachable and learnable. It not only supports the others, but also so many aspects of education and child development.

The academic benefits of PP programs were also reviewed by Waters (link). Students enrolled in social and emotional learning programs ranked 11% points higher on achievement test (controlled for many variables)

Programs are useful, but infusing wellbeing into your practice is the key.


It seemed clear to me that this is an area well worth exploring. It has far reaching implications, can make real differences to student wellbeing and academic outcomes, and is evidence-based. What’s more, it feels right and is easy to start. Personally, I have identified language and practice changes which I can make on Monday.

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Notes on “New Pedagogies for Deep Learning” (Part 2)

This post follows on from Part 1.

Implementation Framework

The second part of the whitepaper focusses on implementation. The plan is laid out in four consecutive stages:

  1. Common Goals:“The framework is premised upon purposeful learning by doing, beginning with a small number of ambitious goals”
  2. Common Measures and Tools:“design a set of common measures and tools to be used across school clusters”
  3. Identify and Share Best Work: “identify and share the best cases of new pedagogies and deep learning work”
  4. Collective Capacity-Building:“teachers to analyze, share and reflect on the best exemplars for both student work and learning activities as a key part of collective capacity-building efforts”

Supported by a Technology Platform

The words “common” and “collective” above are telling. This approach seeks to join numerous stakeholders, and create opportunities for discussion and dialogue. Usual mechanisms of communication would be fragmented (like email) or infrequent (like conferences and symposia). Instead, the aim here is to produce a technology platform which can facilitate the networked, connected and collective interactions required of a project of this nature.

The technology platform will be a scalable online system that includes:

  •  Collection and sharing of student work
  •  Collection and sharing of teachers’ learning activity designs
  •  Online surveys of student, teacher, school leaders and parents’ perceptions, practices, resources and relationships (learning conditions).
  •  Data collection on uses of technology for teaching and learning
  •  Direct online assessments of students’ learning progressions
  •  Reporting engine, providing feedback reports on all of the above inputs

Exemplary Student Work

I find this idea of putting exemplary student work as one of the cornerstones of the project to be unexpected, yet very intriguing. Usually, such programs focus on teacher best practice. However, why not look one step further to student outcomes? Not only would exemplary student work stand on its own, but teacher best practice would shine through in the design of the tasks and then resulting learning.

We will seek to identify best-case examples of student work, of learning designs that prompt such work, and then the school and system learning conditions that nurture and cultivate such learning work.

Capacity Building

Capacity building is a very hot concept in education. I think it is in favour due to the fact that it goes beyond knowledge and even skills. It speaks to a desire to produce learning outcomes which provide intellectual opportunities to learners. Once you have “built capacity” in your students or staff, you can expect to see them take new steps and enter unchartered territory. The authors outline their capacity building program as follows:

Capacity-building programs will include many elements:

  •  Analysis of evidence on learning work (learning activities and student work codes) and learning conditions (practices, perceptions, engagement), using this do identify specific needs
  •  Student and teacher exposure to exemplars, demonstrations and samples of deep learning, new pedagogies, new assessments and new technologies
  •  Identification and development of programs and models relevant to the specific needs of individual schools or clusters. This might involve participation in a cross-cluster experimentation “hubs” focused on particular aspects of pedagogy, learning conditions, technology or policy.
  •  Collaborative capacity-building processes within and across clusters to support the adoption of new models, including supports such as teacher networks, collaboration summits, professional and leadership development, tools, and continuous measurement.

Who will do the Work?

It seems apparent that at the core of this project are a group of professionals funded by grants and/or corporate backing. However, the reach of the scheme is great, and will rely on voluntary contributions from stakeholders.

The partnership will seek to recognize and engage these individuals [teachers and students] as “activators” of new pedagogies and deep learning within and across clusters.

As a teacher who says ‘yes’ to (arguably) too many programs, I am aware of the time these can take. However, I also know that this time is an investment, which is richly rewarded by one’s own learning, and the benefits which can flow to colleagues and students.

The Invitation

The whitepaper finishes with the following invitation:

The world is changing and teaching and learning are changing with it. This paper has defined a vision and a plan of action. Success will depend on partners truly committing to this work to mobilize and dramatically expand
new pedagogies and deep learning on the ground. We invite all who might be interested in participating in this endeavor to contact us at

The Verdict

I’ll sum up with two possibly conflicting statements: 1) I admire the approach, and think it has a lot going for it, 2) I am not going to sign up.

I find it hard to articulate why I don’t want to be directly involved – probably because it is a mixture of reasons. Is it because the project has big corporate sponsors? It is because it seems too big, too impersonal? Is it just because I have enough going on already?

Despite all of that I do support these kinds of initiatives, and will be keen to see what they can develop. Who knows, maybe I’ll jump on the bandwagon once it starts rolling…



Notes on “New Pedagogies for Deep Learning” (Part 1)

I have been reading a white paper written by Michael Fullan and Maria Langworthy as part of what is termed a “global partnership.” Details on the project can be found here (, and the white paper istelf canbe found here.

It is a very well written and researched exploration of current challenges in education. More importantly, it proposes a way forward. The approach is summarised below:

The New Pedagogies for Deep Learning project takes as its focal point the implementation of deep learning goals enabled by new pedagogies and accelerated by technology.

The Place of Technology

Often, in the race to adopt new technologies, the cart be put before the horse. What I like about this approach is that the goals come first, they are supported by new pedagogies and the technology is not even required. However, it does serve a very important role in allowing the process to be accelerated.

Cultural Coherence

Another theme which runs through the paper is that of collaboration and stakeholders. Policy-makers, schools and industry partners are put together, and teachers and students are seen as the key drivers of change, who need support from visionary and cohesive relationships. This notion encapsulated by the term cultural coherence, which becomes the remit of educational leadership.

It is our belief, based on working through successful system-level transformations around the world, that leadership can best address the contingencies of change efforts through serving first as the sustained, focused voice of realignment towards new goals. Leadership next serves as a partner with schools and teachers, together bringing in new measures, resources and processes — all clearly aligned to the new goals. It may sound like a subtle distinction, but effective and sustainable change happens when there is a consensus among all stakeholders that the new goals are a moral imperative. When there is this kind of system-wide shared purpose, collective will becomes the core driver, and change becomes much easier than previously thought. Moreover, the new pedagogies and related technologies are intrinsically engaging so that participants are motivated to go deeper, and do more.

Fostering a Positive Attitude to Change

Okay – so once we have our “moral imperative”,how can we translate that into real change?

Teacher activators along with students in the partnership will collaborate to construct — or deconstruct as the case may be — richer understandings of what the new roles for teachers look like in practice. The partnership’s initial thinking suggests three new roles to investigate:

1. The teacher as designer of powerful learning experiences

2. The teacher as a source of human, social and decisional capital in the learning experience

3. Teachers as partners in learning with students, accelerated by technology

I am particularly drawn to the concept of teachers as designers of learning. I recently moved offices to join the Technology and Design teachers. In doing so, I learned a little of the design cycle, used as the basis of their teaching. I also saw first-hand how students respond to a “design brief” compared to a standard summative assessment. There is a clear distinction in students’ minds between the creative, physical, concrete tasks in Design and Tech, and the dispassionate, abstract, intellectual of Science and Maths. Yet, it need not be so. Learning from my Tech colleagues, I am currently attempting to bring concepts from their world into my classrooms. By that, I do not mean literally drawing or making physical objects. Instead I mean actions such as:

  • discussing the notion that mathematical functions are entities which have been designed for a purpose and constructed to achieve goals and outcomes

  • allowing students to creatively explore not only what experiment they might do, but how they will do it.

  • introducing the concepts of mastery and craftsmanship, refining and improving techniques.

Once the teacher and students can understand and appreciate this design thinking, then the teacher can become a meta-designer, who uses the design cycle when developing and refining learning experiences.

Teachers must know where their students are on their individual learning continuums, and be able to identify success criteria that push forward students’ knowledge and skill mastery at progressive stages of that continuum.

This way of thinking allows the teacher themselves to be more creative. (I’ve always been told that teaching is a creative profession, and it is one of the aspects of the job I enjoy the most)

Teacher as designer also calls upon teachers to be designers of knowledge-based products: the learning activity is the product. This creative responsibility distinguishes new pedagogies from the primary roles of teachers as delivering content knowledge. Digital content and learning resources have the potential to fulfill much of the “content delivery” requirements of teaching, allowing teachers to focus more naturally on creating compelling and personally relevant learning experiences that engage their particular students.

Student-Teacher Partnerships

Points 2. and 3. above, which are on the new roles of teachers, are also worth detailed reading. They serve to guide the transition from teachers as repositories of knowledge to teachers as learning partners with students. As with all partnerships, relationships are the key :

Learning is rooted in relationships, and supportive relationships can unleash the potential of every student…The future of teaching may ultimately center in deeper relationships built between teachers and students, developed through creative, collaborative, socially connected and relevant learning experiences…

…As Laurillard has noted, the investment in technology has been largely a matter of acquisition — buy, buy, buy — not a matter of gearing technology to deepen learning. Technology in education has largely sought to deliver the same kind of content knowledge and basic skill mastery that were the predominant roles of 20 th Century teachers. It is not surprising that many such investments have not significantly changed learning outcomes.

So What is Deep Learning?

If Deep Learning is the goal, then it is clearly important to have a common understanding of what this means. The authors offer a description below, which aligns closely to the concepts of project-based learning and authentic tasks.

They cease to be receivers of content and instead become activators of their own learning, co-creators, and connected change agents. Students doing these things are doing work that is similar to the kind of work they would do in high quality future work. In fact, new research shows that the more individuals are exposed to these types of “real world problem-solving” experiences in their formal learning experiences, the higher their quality of work later in life (Gallup, 2013).

A lot of what follows looks at preparing students for the knowledge economies of the future. When one considers to sheer volume of student work around the world (both within school and without), it seems obvious to tap into that resources for improved learning and societal benefits. Students are innovative, curious and often very talented within their areas of passion. Work they produce could be of real value, if only they were given authentic opportunities to share their intellectual products with real audiences, not just their teachers. Technology is certainly able to facilitate this type of connected learning.

Connected learning [is] learning that is socially embedded, interest-driven, and oriented toward educational, economic, or political opportunity. Connected learning is realized when a young person pursues a personal interest or passion with the support of friends and caring adults, and is in turn able to link this learning and interest to academic achievement, career possibilities, or civic engagement. (Digital Media and Learning Research Hub, 2013)

Obviously, not every year level, and not every student, will be ready to launch their ideas into the world at the same time. It seems as though a workable model here would be start students on theoretical (but real-world based) projects for early years, and gradually transition towards truly “socially embedded” learning.

This takes us up to page 21 of 37. Part two will contain notes on the latter sections.


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Reflections on “The role of formative assessment in effective learning environments”

Dylan Wiliam

I am reading this chapter by Dylan Wiliam, and have decided to share some thoughts as they arise:

  • Feedback is a critical part of formative assessment, and we should be aware of the differentiation in its use in education, compared to sciences and engineering (eg “positive and negative feedback”)
  • More frequent assessment is linked to higher achievement – to a point. More than one test per fortnight had no additional effect – not too surprising.
  • The quality of feedback on these assessments had a much more significant effect than their frequency
  • Effective corrective feedback requires that the learner is active in the process
  • Feedback works best if it is focused on the task (not the learner), and specifically addresses what was done well, and where improvements could be made.
  • No one method of formative assessment appears optimal, and each teacher must find a way to integrate it into their teaching
  • Wiliam’s definition of “formative assessment” focuses on the idea that its purpose is the inform (that is, form) the future learning process based on evidence from the assessment.

The chapter provides a very detailed look into formative assessment, and discusses the effect size of various feedback and assessment strategies. As with other reviews of this type, I am left with a feeling that it is of little value to focus on any individual strategies. In different studies, the same interventions have different effect sizes, indicating that there are so many variables in any study in an educational setting that fine-grained analysis may be meaningless. Nonetheless, Wiliam is able to draw together some general guiding principles, which appear as the 5 key strategies shown above.

My ongoing and proposed actions

  • Continue providing recorded audio feedback
  • Ensure feedback is provided during the same or next lesson for most tasks, within a week for longer summative tasks
  • Provide ongoing records (graphs, charts) or student achievement levels to students (and parents?)
  • Peers to review work from a higher grade band. “What are the students a grade band above you doing?”
  • Review how well my teaching aligns with Wiliam’s key principles.

Other ideas arising

  • Help students view Units of Study as opportunities to add knowledge and skills to their inventory, rather than barriers which they need to bust through then ignore. The vertical integration of the Australian Curriculum provides examples of learning paths which could show learners how this process happens.
  • Wiliam presents Nyquist’s classification of feedback and formative assessments, along with their effect sizes (below). It provides an interesting challenge – especially the level ‘strong formative assessment’. In it, not only is the task designed to provide evidence of learning, but then specific tasks are provided to students to improve areas of deficiency. It is a worthwhile aim, though one would hope for more than a 0.56 effect size.



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Rewriting the didactic contract

More brilliant advice on changing the culture of the Mathematics classroom from Dan Meyer.

They may even resist you. They signed their “didactic contract” years and years ago. They signed it. Their math teachers signed it. The agreement says that the teacher comes into class, tells them what they’re going to learn, and shows them three examples of it. In return, the students take what their teacher showed them and reproduce it twenty times before leaving class. Then they go home with an assignment to reproduce it twenty more times.

Then here you come, Ms. I-Just-Got-Back-From-A-Workshop, and you want to change the agreement? Yeah, you’ll hear from their attorney.

I love this concept of a “didactic contract”. We need be aware of what has been metaphorically signed, especially if we are attempting to rewrite.